Pet Prescriptions from Australian Pharmacists

dog

  • Recognising the Signs of Pain in Your Pet

    If there ever was a time when you wished your pet could talk, it was probably when you thought they were in pain. Unfortunately, our pets aren't able to tell us when they are experiencing pain, so it is up to you to determine if they might be in pain, or if it is something else. This article will cover the difference between acute and chronic pain and will list common signs of pain in both dogs and cats.

    Acute Pain

    Acute pain is typically obvious in pets and can be quite distressing to witness. It is usually in response to some kind of stimulus such as a crushing or twisting, or a tissue injury that is the result of a bruise, wound or surgical incision. Acute pain is generally short-lived and typically resolves within 3 days after the event that caused it.

    Chronic Pain

    Chronic pain describes any type of pain that lasts longer than expected, or pain that is associated with long-term diseases such as osteoarthritis. Symptoms of chronic pain may be more subtle than acute pain symptoms and can be mistakenly attributed to "getting old" or "slowing down", which often means that the underlying cause of pain is left untreated.

    Other Types of Pain

    Other types of pain that our pets can experience include pain from cancerous tumour growths or pain from chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Neuropathic pain is caused by nerve damage or damage to another part of the central nervous system, and can be difficult to diagnose.

    Signs of Pain in Dogs

    Physical signs:

    • Heavy breathing
    • Slowed reflexes
    • Enlarged pupils
    • Change in heart rate

    Behavioural signs:

    • Irritability
    • Unusual restlessness or anxiety
    • Mood or personality changes
    • Withdrawn behaviour
    • Licking, biting or overgrooming the site of pain
    • Reduced activity
    • Reluctance to lie down or difficulty standing after lying down
    • Reduced appetite
    • Whining or barking

    Signs of Pain in Cats

    Physical signs:

    • Sitting still and hunched up
    • Faster and more shallow breathing
    • Change in heart rate
    • Enlarged pupils

    Behavioural signs:

    • Irritability
    • Unusual restlessness, anxiety or aggression
    • Mood or personality changes
    • Withdrawn behaviour and hiding
    • Loss of interest in people or other pets or clingy behaviour
    • Licking, biting or overgrooming the site of pain or neglecting to groom altogether
    • Inability or reluctance to jump up onto surfaces
    • Reluctance to lie down or difficulty standing after lying down
    • Reduced appetite
    • Excessive meowing, purring, growling or unusual vocalisations
    • Doing their business outside of the litter box

    Treating Pain in Pets

    If you suspect your pet is in pain, you should never attempt to medicate them without first consulting a veterinarian. Many pain medications for humans can be fatal if administered to pets. Together with your veterinarian, you can develop a plan to treat or manage your pets pain ensuring they can maintain a good quality of life.

    One medication that is commonly prescribed to treat both acute and chronic pain is Metacam. Metacam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for use in both dogs and cats. It is commonly prescribed by veterinarians to treat musculoskeletal disorders, alleviate the pain of soft tissue injuries and to reduce post-operative pain and inflammation. If your veterinarian has prescribed Metacam for your pet, you can view our prices for Metacam here.

  • Coronavirus and Your Pet

    Since the World Health Organisation declared the 2019 novel coronavirus (also known as COVID-19) a global health emergency, you might have been wondering if this virus could be transmitted to your pet.

    A cream-coloured dog sits in front of a red brick fence

    The World Health Organisation (WHO), World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) have all stated that they do not believe this current strain of coronavirus that has been affecting humans, can be passed from humans to companion animals, or from animals to humans. However, they have suggested that if your pet has been in contact with a person who has been confirmed to have coronavirus, that you should call your veterinarian to discuss your next steps.

    A graphic from the World Health Organisation that states there is 'no evidence that companion animals can be infected with the new coronavirus'

    Despite not believing to be susceptible to this particular strain of coronavirus, both cats and dogs can be infected with other types of coronavirus. One type that affects dogs is canine respiratory coronavirus, which can cause an acute upper respiratory infection. Feline enteric coronavirus, which is one type that affects cats, can lead to a cat developing a disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

    A close up photo of a black and white cat

    Canine Coronavirus

    Both types of coronavirus that can affect dogs are more commonly found in places where large numbers of dogs are housed together, such as in shelters or kennels. There are vaccines available to protect your dog against coronavirus infection, but you should speak to your veterinarian about whether your dog requires these vaccines. The Australian Veterinary Association does not currently recommend that dogs are vaccinated against coronavirus.

    A photo of a dog in a red collar with the sun setting in the background

    Feline Coronavirus

    Feline coronavirus is a fairly common viral infection in cats. Most cats that are infected do not show any symptoms. Those that do usually suffer from vomiting or diarrhoea. Just like in dogs, it spreads easily between cats that are living in close contact, such as in a shelter or kennel. The best way to prevent the spread of coronavirus between cats is to regularly scoop litter boxes and to use appropriate disinfectants when cleaning. A vaccine for coronavirus in cats is not currently available in Australia.

    A fluffy grey cat is pictured sitting in a forest

    Caring For Your Pet When You Are Unwell

    There are some simple steps you can follow to prevent the spread of illness to your pet. If you or others who care for your pets are unwell, you should avoid handling your pets, or wear a face mask if you must be around animals. Thorough hand washing with soap and water for around 20 seconds is always recommended after handling animals to prevent the spread of bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella. To prevent the spread of highly contagious viruses and bacteria between animals, protective wear such as disposable aprons and shoe covers are also recommended.

    A small brown dog is walking through green grass

    If after reading this article you are still concerned about how coronavirus could affect your pet, the best person to speak to is your veterinarian.

    Update from WSAVA on 7 March 2020

    Reports from Hong Kong on February 28 indicated that the pet dog of an infected patient had tested "weakly positive" to COVID-19 after routine testing. On March 5, the Hong Kong SAR Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) reported that nasal, oral, rectal and faecal samples from the dog have been tested. On February 26 and 28, oral and nasal swabs were positive, while on March 2, only nasal swabs showed positive results. The rectal and faecal samples tested negative on all three occasions.

    Testing at both the government veterinary laboratory (AFCD) and the WHO accredited diagnostic human CoV laboratory at Hong Kong University (HKU) detected a low viral load in the nasal and oral swabs. Both laboratories used the real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and the results indicate that there was a small quantity of COVID-19 viral RNA in the samples. It does not, however, indicate whether the samples contain intact virus particles which are infectious, or just fragments of the RNA, which are not contagious.

    The dog, which is showing no relevant clinical signs, was removed from the household, which was the possible source of contamination on 26 February. Restesting was performed after the dog was put under quarantine to determine whether the dog was in fact infected or whether its mouth and nose were being contaminated with COVID-19 virus from the household.

    The AFCD's document states that the "weak positive" result from the nasal sample taken 5 days after the dog was removed from the possible source of contamination suggests that the dog has a low-level of infection and it is likely to be a case of human-to-animal transmission. However, there is still no evidence at this time that mammalian pet animals including dogs and cats can be a source of infection to other animals or humans.

    Update from American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) on 7 April 2020

    While two dogs (Hong Kong) and two cats (one in Belgium and one in Hong Kong) living with people diagnosed with COVID-19 have been reported to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, other dogs and cats also living with infected people remain uninfected. New research articles have been posted to open-access sites on an almost daily basis that describe preliminary results suggesting some domestic animals can be experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 and may transmit the virus to other animals in an experiemental setting or mount a viral-specific immune response when exposed to SARS-CoV-2. However, caution should be taken to not over-interpret results described in such articles, some of which may report on data from a very small number of animals or provide only preliminary results, and not extrapolate those results to the potential for SARS-CoV-2 to naturally infect or be transmitted by companion animals kept as pets. To date the CDC has not received any reports of pets becoming sick with COVID-19 in the United States. Infectious disease experts and multiple international and domestic human and animal health organisations continue to agree there is no evidence at this point to indicate that, under natural conditions, pets spread COVID-19 to people.

    The USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories has also confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in one tiger at a zoo in New York. This is the first instance of a tiger being infected with COVID-19. Several lions and tigers at the zoo showed clinical signs of respiratory illness and this tiger was tested accordingly. Public health employees believe the large cats became ill after being exposed to a zoo employee who was actively shedding virus. All of the large cats are expected to recover. No other animals in other areas of the zoo are exhibiting similar clinical signs. USDA and CDC are monitoring this situation and the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) will be notified of the finding.

  • Treatments for heart failure in dogs

    When a dog's heart is unable to pump an adequate amount of blood, this is known as congestive heart failure. this causes an increase in pressure and fluid that eventually leaks out into the lungs or elsewhere. Congestive heart failure is not a disease itself but rather a condition that occurs as the result of severe heart disease. Pulmonary edema, which is the build-up of fluid in a dog's lungs or pleural effusion, which is a build-up around the lungs hinders the normal expansion of the lungs and restricts oxygen properly moving into the blood stream. This results in the dog taking deep and rapid breaths in an attempt to get enough oxygen. A dog with fluid in their lungs has trouble exercising, might cough, and will appear weak and sluggish. Often a dog with heart failure will not have a good appetite, in addition to other symptoms.

    Best Treatment for heart failure in dogs

    Which treatment for congestive heart failure is best depends on the underlying heart disease and how severe the heart failure is. Your vet will recommend the best action to take. Generally the goal of the treatment recommended by your vet for heart disease will be to reduce the buildup of fluid around your dog's lungs and to increase the amount of blood being pumped by the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body. This will improve the quality and length of a dog's life. Your vet has a choice of a variety of medications, supplements and diets to help reach these goals. One of the most common types of medication used is called an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or ACE inhibitor. Examples of these are enalapril (Enacard®), lisinopril and benazepril. These have been shown to improve both clinical signs and survival in dogs and cats with congestive heart failure.

    Diuretics are another group of drugs that cause fluid in the body to be taken up by the kidneys and excreted as urine. These are very effective in treating congestive heart failure, since they remove the excess fluid that has built up. There are many different types of diuretics including loop diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix®), thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide®), and potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone (Aldactone®). Your veterinarian will choose the most appropriate diuretic based on each individual animal.

    Another group of drugs, called vasodilators, relax (or dilate) blood vessels in the body and decrease the amount of pressure on the heart and allow it to pump blood forward with greater ease. Examples of these drugs are nitroglycerine (Nitrostat®), hydralazine (Apresoline®), and sodium nitroprusside (Nipride®). ACE inhibitors also have vasodilator effects.

    Another group of drugs called positive inotropes may also be administered in certain cases to increase the force with which the heart muscle beats (increased vigor of contraction), allowing it to pump more blood forward to the lungs and the rest of the body. Pimobendan (Vetmedin®) is the most commonly used positive inotrope. Others include digoxin, milrinone, and dobutamine.

    In addition to medications, there are other therapies to help improve and or help prevent cases of congestive heart failure. Modifying your dog's diet and limiting the amount of salt they eat is a critical component of treating congestive heart failure. For many pets with congestive heart failure, exercise restriction is a crucial aspect of therapy in order to reduce the risk of worsening their condition or even death.

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